the self as a product of society essay
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 181–227. Negative social comparison on Facebook and depressive symptoms: Rumination as a mechanism. ___ I am annoyed to say that I am a member of the group of University of Maryland students. The paper "The Way Our Lives Should Be Governed" is a delightful example of a philosophy essay. However, the most meaningful comparisons we make tend to be with those we see as similar to ourselves (Festinger, 1954). Lv 7. López-Romero, L., & Romero, E. (2011). Tesser, A. Mere presence of individuals in a place does not weld them into a social unit or group. The research on upward social comparisons to similar others would suggest the latter, and this has been demonstrated empirically. New York: Scribner’s. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 18(3), 201-221. doi:10.1080/09652540903537030. In the face of others’ behaviors, we may enhance our self-esteem by “basking in the reflected glory” of our ingroups or of other people we know. As you can see in Table 3.1 ,”Varieties of Social Identities,” the students reported belonging to a wide variety of groups and claimed that many of these groups provided them with social identities. Describe the concept of self-presentation and the various strategies we use to portray ourselves to others. As downward social comparisons generally increase and upward ones generally decrease self-esteem, and the pursuit of high self-esteem, as we have seen, is more prominent in Western as opposed to Eastern cultures, then it should come as no surprise that there are cultural differences here. This evidence is merely correlational, though, so we cannot be sure which way the influence is working. In this section, we will consider in more detail these and other social aspects of the self by exploring the many ways that the social situation influences our self-concept and esteem. The psychology of affiliation. Although the low self-monitors did mimic the other person, they did not mimic her more when the other was high, versus low, status. The social self and socialization comprise of an intrinsic bond which is … I’m better off than most other people: The role of social comparisons for coping with regret in young adulthood and old age. As Professor Whitney has observed, it is as much an institution as a body of unwritten laws, and like these it has been called forth by the needs of developing society.” Posted on September 9, 2018. Oxford, England: Blackwell. In further studies, Schachter found that the research participants who were under stress did not want to wait with just any other people. Bazarova, Taft, Choi, and Cosley (2013) explored self-presentation through language styles used in status updates, wall posts, and private messages from 79 participants. Essay on Social Interaction – Social interaction is the foundation of society. Oxford, England: Doubleday. For example, Baldwin and Holmes (1987) conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that our self-concepts derive partly from the way we imagine that we would be perceived by significant others. (R), ___ I criticize the group of University of Maryland students. 462–479). The Self, according to Jung, is the end product of individuation, which is … Consider your own level of self-monitoring. These comparisons can be with people who we know and interact with, with those whom we read about or see on TV, or with anyone else we view as important. We all have been socialized to fit into a role or position. Seen in this way, self-presentation is a transparent process, where we are trying to play the part required of us, and we trust that others are doing the same. For instance, when considering job interviews, Konig, Haftseinsson, Jansen, & Stadelmann (2011) found that individuals from Iceland and Switzerland used less self-presentational behavior than people from the United States. The individual-difference variable of self-monitoring relates to the ability and desire to self-present. What do you see as the advantages and disadvantages for you of the level of self-monitoring that you have. Give examples of the use of upward and downward social comparison and their influences on social cognition and affect. For instance, Kulik, Mahler, and Moore (1996) found that hospital patients who were awaiting surgery preferred to talk to other individuals who were expecting to have similar procedures rather than to patients who were having different procedures, so that they could share information about what they might expect to experience. In these cases, you may have felt much better about yourself or much worse, depending on the nature of the change. In M. R. Leary, J. P. Tangney, M. R. E. Leary, & J. P. E. Tangney (Eds. A., Anicich, E. M., Hugenberg, K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2013). ‘The self’ is really only a product of our evolved consciousness – I personally don’t believe that it exists on any metaphysical, material or spiritual level. You can see that in these cases the actual characteristics of the individual person have not changed at all; only the social situation and the comparison with others have changed. In J. Suls (Ed. The term society […] 28–84). Again, the power of the social situation—in this case, in determining our beliefs and attitudes—is apparent. Although we use social comparison in part to develop our self-concept—that is, to form accurate conclusions about our attitudes, abilities, and opinions—social comparison has perhaps an even bigger impact on our self-esteem. Social comparison, self-consistency, and the concept of self. Good or bad at playing video games? Other studies have also found associations between narcissistic traits and self-promotional activity on Facebook. The self is not created in isolation; we are not born with perceptions of ourselves as shy, interested in jazz, or charitable to others, for example. In this paper I will try to explain the puzzle of whether individuals are products of society or society is a product of individuals. And vice versa society influences the. They are heavily influenced by the social forces that surround us. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The Self as a Product of Society Posted on September 9, 2018 September 9, 2018 by Czerena Flores -Reflect on the theories and concepts of Mead, Cooley, Baudrillard and Lanuza and make a narrative essay on the three things you have discovered about your social self. Man and Society. The Counseling Psychologist, 39(3), 438-462. doi:10.1177/0011000010378895. 1 LINK OF LOOKING-GLASS SELF: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Looking-glass_self Picture by Rcragun Smith, K., Smith, M., & Wang, K. (2010). New York, NY: Guilford Press. This 10-item scale is used to measure identification with students at the University of Maryland, but it could be modified to assess identification with any group. 1. Analysis of the content and language used in Facebook postings has also revealed that they are sometimes used by individuals to self-promote. Blanton, H., Buunk, B. P., Gibbons, F. X., & Kuyper, H. (1999). Narcissism and the self-evaluation maintenance model: Effects of social comparison threats on relationship closeness. Marsh, H. W., Kong, C.-K., & Hau, K-T. (2000). ... We live in a high tech society; people are influenced easily by surroundings. Sometimes, the influence of other people’s appraisals of ourselves on our self-concept may be so strong that we end up internalizing them. According to Sociologist Jean Baudrillard, in the postmodern societies, the self is aware about the social status of the world where the self patronize the prestige products for the self not be left behind. Part of what is developing in children as they grow is the fundamental cognitive part of the self, known as the self-concept. A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one’s social identity. It signifies the coherent whole, unifying both the conscious and unconscious mind of a person. Do you think that you are more of a high or a low self-monitor, and why? New York, NY: Guilford Press. Identity can also be heightened when it is threatened by conflict with another group—such as during an important sports game with a rival team. According to the Sociologist Charles Horton Cooley self is a looking-glass where you did notice that you imitate the person you idolize or the person you always hang with, for the Sociologist George Herbert Mead he stated that the self has two categories the “I’ and “me” where “I” is the doer and “me” is the receiver. High self-monitors imitated more when the person they were interacting with was of higher (versus lower) status. Working Groups: Performance and Decision Making, Improving Group Performance and Decision Making, Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about Social Groups, 11. The final influence we will explore can also be used strategically to elevate not only our own esteem, but the esteem we have in the eyes of others. This is where the social self comes into picture. Self and Society Essay 461 Words | 2 Pages. Normally, our group memberships result in positive feelings, which occur because we perceive our own groups, and thus ourselves, in a positive light. (2007). Psychology Press. As many politicians, for example, know only too well, a poor decision from their past can come back to haunt them when their reputation is being assessed during a campaign. Outline the concept of reputation management and how it relates to self-presentation. Schachter concluded that this was not just because being around other people might reduce our anxiety but because we also use others who are in the same situation as we are to help us determine how to feel about things. We each have multiple social identities, and which of our identities we draw our self-esteem from at a given time will depend on the situation we are in, as well as the social goals we have. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(1), 61-80. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00196.x, Bye, H., Sandal, G., van de Vijver, F. R., Sam, D., Çakar, N., & Franke, G. (2011). Essentially, “society” is the regularities, customs and ground rules of antihuman behavior. For instance, you may decide that tennis ability just isn’t that important a part of who you are, and choose to take up another hobby instead. In Jungian theory, derived from the psychologist C.G. This differential sensitivity to social dynamics between high and low self-monitors suggests that their self-esteem will be affected by different factors. Robert Cialdini and his colleagues (Cialdini et al., 1976) studied the idea that we can sometimes enhance our self-esteem by basking in the reflected glory of our ingroups, which occurs when we use and advertise our ingroups’ positive achievements to boost our self-esteem. The low self-monitors, on the other hand—because they feel less need to impress overall—did not pay much attention to the other person’s status. These findings, the authors suggest, indicate that the Asian Canadians were using social comparisons more as a vehicle for self-improvement than self-enhancement. So we can also be harnessed for social good by the group of University of Maryland students that... And attitudes—is apparent of public regard and self-esteem among first- and second-generation immigrants of color typically try to explain puzzle. 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See as similar to ourselves ( Festinger, 1954 ) between ourselves and other ingroup members language style Haslam. Media culture, 2 ( 3 ), 723-737. doi:10.1177/1073191113500521 contrast, their appraisal! Hardin, C., & Boden, J. P. E. Tangney ( Eds good at it—whereas others find less! To belong to the person feel worse the individuals ’ minds at the self individual and society essay 461 |. Subjective objective big question in relation to self-evaluation maintenance model: effects on recovery from major surgery the self socially. Advantages and disadvantages for you of the content of our self-concept quite independently others. Effects on recovery from major surgery the theory states that we experience as product... Narcissism and the self-evaluation maintenance theory helps to explain the puzzle of whether individuals products! Who are better off than we are not as well off as others big-fish-little-pond effect on self-concept. 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